"Diabetes mellitus is not a phrase but a lifestyle" - endocrinologists repeat this phrase. Adherence to a therapeutic diet is one of the fundamental points in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, enabling the patient to live a full life.
Diabetes diet is a leading component of treatment. In this disease there is a lack of insulin - a special hormone in the pancreas that regulates carbohydrate metabolism. The main symptom of diabetes mellitus is an increase in blood sugar, but the violation of carbohydrate metabolism does not remain isolated, but leads to an imbalance in both protein and fat metabolism.
Diabetes diet is not just about limiting carbohydrates. The patient's diet also includes the products that contribute to the normalization of the work of other organs and systems, which are usually affected by this endocrine disease. So, for example, with concomitant obesity, which happens quite often, the menu contains as many vegetables as possible, which contain a small amount of calories but give a feeling of fullness: cucumbers, tomatoes, spinach, peas, cabbage, lettuce. Given that diabetes in many cases also affects the liver, extracts (meat and fish broth) are limited in the diet, but they necessarily include cottage cheese, soy and oatmeal, which have a beneficial effect on liver function. And the damage to the cardiovascular system dictates the restriction of salt in the diet of patients with diabetes.
The existing two types of diabetes mellitus require a different dietary intake. In type 1 diabetes, diet is not so important - the emphasis in treatment is on the administration of insulin, which makes the diet of such patients less restrictive. However, in type 2 diabetes mellitus, diet is of paramount importance - in the initial stage of the disease, in many cases it is only possible to control blood sugar by following medical dietary recommendations without prescribing antihyperglycemic drugs.
However, diets for diabetes of all kinds have general principles, compliance with which makes it possible to stabilize carbohydrate metabolism to some degree.
Diabetes Diet: Basic Principles
- Meals are frequent, regular, at the same time - at least 4 times a day.
- Equal distribution of dietary caloric content and nutritional value by main meals.
- Variety, including a wide range of products recommended for diabetics.
- Eating xylitol or sorbitol to make food sweeter.
- Calorie control of the daily diet using special tables.
- Liquid limitation to 1200 ml, including the first time.
- Inclusion of foods rich in vitamins in food: rosehip broth, yeast, etc.
- Regular monitoring of blood sugar content with dietary correction depending on the results obtained.
Diabetes diet type 2
All therapeutic diets in modern medicine are usually denoted by numbers for ease of use. In the case of diabetes, the classic diet has number 9 - otherwise they say "table number 9".
What is diet number 9 for diabetes?
- bread (with emphasis on rye cakes) 200-300 g;
- soups of vegetable broth;
- meat and poultry cooked or steamed
- low-fat cooked or steamed fish
- vegetables: white cabbage or cauliflower, lettuce, rutabagas, cucumbers, radishes, beets, carrots, potatoes;
- eggs - 2 pieces a day
- unsweetened fruits and berries: Antonov apples, oranges, lemons, cranberries, cranberries, currants;
- kefir or yogurt - 200-400 ml per day;
- cottage cheese up to 200 mg perday
- mild sauces, including dairy sauce;
- snacks: vinaigrette, salad, jelly fish;
- beverages: tomato juice, tea with milk, unsweetened juices, compotes without sugar;
- butter and vegetable oil - 40 g perday.
- Cereals, legumes and pasta are consumed to a limited extent while reducing bread consumption
- soups based on weak fish or meat broth - not more than twice a week;
- sugar and diabetic sweets - as recommended by a doctor;
- milk - as recommended by a doctor
- cheese, cream, sour cream - limited;
- chocolate, sweets, cakes, pastries, honey, jams and the like;
- pork and lamb fat; Spicy, salty and smoky dishes:
- sweet fruits: bananas, raisins, grapes;
- alcohol in any form.
Table 9 is a diet for diabetics during the period of stabilization of the disease. If the patient's condition worsens for some reason, the diet usually becomes more restricted. In any case, only a doctor can give definitive dietary recommendations for type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes diet type 1
In type 1 diabetes, the diet is determined by the administration of insulin, so the same recommendations are usually followed by those patients with type 2 diabetes who need insulin injections.
In terms of composition, such a menu is not much different from the diet for type 2 diabetes, but sugar is completely excluded. Despite this ban, it is strongly recommended that patients receiving insulin always carry a piece of sugar or candy with them, which may be necessary in the event of a threat of a hypoglycaemic condition - a condition with low blood sugar levels where the severity ofA serious condition is possible - coma.
Modern glucometers and carbohydrate tables enable such patients to lead a more nutritious lifestyle. The existing concept - the device bread (XE) equivalent to 12 g of carbohydrates - allows diabetic patients who receive insulin to periodically eat even non-recommended foods or eat more carbohydrates. For this, however, the patient has to measure the blood sugar before each meal and, based on the upcoming menu, expressed in XE, inject himself with the required amount of short-acting insulin. A special table is used to calculate bread units.
All of the above does not mean that a patient with type 1 diabetes can eat anything and in any amount: a meal should have no more than 7-8 XE. For obese patients, these restrictions are even stricter.
A characteristic of diet type 1 diet is the high protein content. This requirement is especially important for patients with infectious complications and manifestations of trophic disorders of the extremities.
Composing a detailed diet, changing meals and insulin administration every hour should only be performed by the attending physician.
Diet weight loss diet
Patients with diabetes mellitus, especially type 2, are often obese. Therefore, the issue of limiting the caloric content of the diet of such patients may be particularly important. However, none of the "fast" monodieters should be used in this case. Such a ban is explained by the high risk of developing a severe hypoglycaemic condition (a critical drop in blood sugar) in case of a violation of a balanced diet, and in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and moderate type 2 diabetes it is almostinevitably.
If you are overweight, a diet for weight loss in diabetes involves a correction of the usual therapeutic diet No. 9 with a reduced content of refined carbohydrates (sugar) and some restriction of fat. However, such decisions should not be made without the advice of a physician: only with a physician will the patient be able to compose a safe diet with a reduced calorie content.