It is very important to follow a diet for pancreatitis, especially for chronic pancreatitis. You need to eat as much protein as possible and at the same time you need to reduce or completely eliminate fats and carbohydrates, especially sugars, which are 99% carbohydrates, excluding fried foods and all foods that contain coarse fiber. It is recommended to start taking vitamins. You need to eat a little, but often, that is, 5-6 times a day.
The pancreas is necessary to ensure the normal functioning of the body: it is thanks to the digestive juices that it is excreted in the duodenum that the main components of food products - proteins, fats and carbohydrates - are broken down. As a result of the digestive process that takes place in this part of the digestive tract, simpler compounds are obtained that enter the general bloodstream after absorption of the intestinal mucosa. Thus, nutrients, amino acids and vitamins necessary for metabolic processes in cells and for the building of tissues are formed from food in the duodenal area and reach all organs and systems in the body.
In addition, the pancreas produces insulin, which is necessary for the normal course of carbohydrate metabolism, and lipokine, which prevents fat degeneration in the liver.
The most common cause of pancreatitis is abuse of fatty foods and alcoholic beverages. The disease can occur in both acute and chronic forms. The diet for pancreatitis depends on the characteristics of the pathological process: the acute period requires a stricter attitude to diet and food.
In acute or chronic inflammation of the pancreas, cardinal digestive disorders occur, including:
- pH of the medium in the small intestine changes to the acidic side, resulting in the patient feeling heartburn, burning sensation in the intestines;
- enzymes accumulate inside the gland, begin the process of self-digestion of tissues and cause severe abdominal pain in the right umbilicus;
- toxic substances accumulate, self-poisoning of the body occurs;
- violation of insulin secretion, induces glucose.
The pathogenesis of pancreatitis develops as an acute or chronic inflammation. The principle of treatment of all forms of pancreatitis includes, according to indications:
- drug replacement therapy taking into account the nature of the inflammation and the patient's condition
- therapeutic diet food.
Proper nutrition during the stages of pancreatitis rehabilitation, especially after the patient is discharged from the hospital, significantly increases the chances of full recovery or stabilization of the pathology.
It is at home that the principle of dietary nutrition is often violated. In the meantime, it is important to follow the unchanging rules of a therapeutic diet. In addition, diets do not contain expensive products, their preparation is the simplest, including: chopping, cooking, steaming.
Diet for acute pancreatitis
During an exacerbation of an attack of pancreatitis, before the arrival of an ambulance, it is allowed to apply cold compresses on the area of pain, usually the pain with a pillow. During this period, it is permissible to drink mineral water (for example, Borjomi, Narzan). The daily fluid volume is up to five to six glasses with normal urination. Simple fluids suppress the release of pancreatic juice in the duodenum, reduce pain, remove toxins from the body.
When a sick person is admitted to a medical institution, the patient receives a diet meal developed by a dietitian.
To illustrate the principles of diet for pancreatitis, we have made excerpts from these documents. Numbered diets are not officially used in hospitals. For pancreatitis, diet with the abbreviation - SD and IAP is recommended.
In acute pancreatitis, the patient is prescribed starvation for the first two days. It is allowed to drink only rosehip broth or mineral water - a glass up to five times a day. On the third day, it is allowed to eat, but only low-calorie foods, excluding fats, salt and dishes that increase the secretion of gastric juice and stimulate the process of formation of gas in the intestines.
All subsequent days, while the patient is in the hospital, he must strictly adhere to the diet specified by the doctor!
Stage of fading exacerbation of pancreatitis
Recommended diet taking into account mechanical and biochemical sparing of intestinal mucosa.
This meal includes:
- physiological level of the main components of food - proteins, lipids, carbohydrates;
- increased amount of fat and water soluble vitamins;
- Low levels of substances that irritate the intestinal mucosa, including food spices
- it is forbidden to use spicy, salty, spicy, smoked.
Cooking methods: steam heat treatment. The food is chopped, dried off, small pieces of cooked food are allowed. The temperature of food served on the table should not exceed 650C. The recommended number of meals is five to six a day.
- A daily serving contains 90 grams of total protein, 40 grams of animal origin.
- Contains 80 grams of fat a day, 30 grams of vegetables.
- The carbohydrate content of a daily serving is 300 grams, an easily digestible 60 grams.
- Energy value 2480 kilocalories.
Once the symptoms of acute pancreatitis have subsided, it is better to switch to soups, eat lean meats and fish, fresh cottage cheese, cereals and vegetables and pudding. Foods like fruit juices, honey, jams, sugars should be reduced or eliminated from the diet. Before bedtime, laxatives are useful: kefir, yogurt, etc. It is important to completely abandon fatty foods, muffins, fried fish, bacon, sour cream, salted and smoked foods, pickles, onions, garlic, radishes, alcoholic beverages.
The recommended diet for acute pancreatitis should be followed for six months to a year. Nearly one hundred percent of a patient's health depends on how accurately he adheres to the doctor's prescription regarding diet. It is important to remember that any dietary defects are immediately reflected in the pancreas.
Chronic pancreatitis in remission
In this variant, a different approach to patient nutrition. During this period, nutritionists recommend including a high protein content in a diet, a physiological fat rate. A more sophisticated approach to carbohydrates. The remission diet suggests:
- protein is allowed slightly above the physiological norm;
- the norm for fats and complex carbohydrates in the form of cereals;
- below the norm includes sugar, honey, jam, cakes, sweet cakes, table salt is also below the norm.
Under this option, it is forbidden to eat substances that irritate the mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal tract. Such products include vinegar, alcohol and other substances used as spices.
The dishes are boiled, stewed, baked, steamed. It is allowed to serve food in a mushy, not a mushy form. Feeding at short intervals in small portions 4-6 times a day. The food is served hot. Its temperature is not higher than sixty degrees Celsius.
- A daily serving contains 120 grams of total protein, including 50 grams of animal origin.
- The daily portion contains 90 grams of fat, 30 grams of vegetable fat.
- The daily serving of carbohydrates contains 350 grams, easily digestible 40 grams.
- Energy value 2690 kilocalories.
Diet for chronic pancreatitis
Chronic pancreatitis develops in most cases as a result of an acute illness. At the same time, it may be primary if the patient suffers from liver cirrhosis, hepatitis, duodenal pathology, gallstone disease, allergies, atherosclerosis and abuses alcohol.
The diet for chronic pancreatitis is considered the most important in the treatment of this disease. In remission, the number of calories in the daily diet should be consistent with physical activity. It is recommended to take food up to six times a day and not forget food that is characterized by a laxative effect.
It is important to keep track of your daily protein intake. Since it is necessary for the normal course of recycling processes, it must be consumed in sufficient quantities - up to 130 grams per day, and only 30% of the protein must be of vegetable origin.
The diet of a patient suffering from chronic pancreatitis should include beef, veal, rabbit, chicken, turkey and lean pork. Prohibited: lamb, fatty pork as well as goose, duck and game. If the patient is concerned about frequent pain, meat dishes are cooked in minced form or steamed, you can not bake dishes in the oven, roast and stew. Lean fish is cooked in the same way.
Meat and fish dishes with a low fat content help the patient to avoid fat degeneration in the liver, which is of great importance in chronic pancreatitis. Homemade cottage cheese has a similar property, but only if it is non-acidic and fresh, cottage cheese is not recommended.
Pure milk in chronic pancreatitis is often poorly tolerated, so it is better to add it to cereals, soups, jellies when preparing them. Although milk is well tolerated by patients, it should not be abused and drink no more than half a glass of warm milk a day in small sips. Fresh dairy products are much more useful for people suffering from pancreatitis. Cheese in remission, banned during an exacerbation of the disease, can be eaten in small amounts, provided you are well. The cheese should be lean and mild. Whole eggs are excluded from the diet, while steamed protein omelets, meals with whipped proteins are allowed. In addition, eggs may be present as an additive in other dishes.
Proteins of vegetable origin can be represented by rice, yesterday's bread, breadcrumbs, semolina, oatmeal, buckwheat, pasta. It is forbidden to eat legumes with pancreatitis.
Dietary fats should not exceed 70 grams, and 80% of them are animal fats, it is better to eat them with other dishes and foods. It is better to put oil in a ready-made bowl immediately before eating, vegetable oil is only allowed if it is well tolerated. Cooking fats, margarine, beef and lard are prohibited.
Carbohydrates in the daily diet should not contain more than 350 grams, they can be represented by sugar, honey, jam, syrup. From foods rich in carbohydrates, biscuits, semolina, oatmeal, buckwheat, barley, rice, pasta are allowed. Patients are also allowed to eat potatoes, carrots, beets, pumpkin, courgette, squash. Vegetable dishes should be steamed or boiled water; you can eat vegetable steamed pudding. Cooked vegetables are best used in pureed form with the addition of cereal broth.
Of fruits, non-acidic varieties of apples are recommended: ripe fruits can be baked, wiped, compote made from them, dried fruit compote is also useful.Of all the sauces, milk and flour-based bechamel is considered the most optimal, and flour is not sautéed and very little salt is added.
- First courses (soups from cereals, vegetables, milk, lean meats, fish and sweet soups from fruit).
- Other dishes (boiled beef, poultry, fish, chicken egg yolk).
- Products containing cereals (cereals, pasta, white, black bread, vegetable oil).
- Dairy, fermented dairy products (milk 2, 5%, fermented dairy products, butter).
- Berries, fruits, vegetables (ripe, sweet) in raw, baked form, carrots, beets - cooked as a dressing for soups, as an accompaniment and independent dishes.
- Dessert (easily digestible carbohydrates for pancreatitis are limited, ie below the physiological norm, jam, honey, sugar).
- Beverages (tea with milk, vegetables, fruit juices).
- Special products (dry protein composite mixture) Fat and water-soluble vitamins are added.
It is also important not to overeat by reducing the daily amount of food to 2, 5 kg taking into account the fluid drunk. Food is taken often and in small portions.
Following all dietary guidelines for pancreatitis can increase the effectiveness of treatment in general.
Diet menu for pancreatitis
The number of products must be calculated on the basis of the above regulatory documents.
Here's a daily sample menu of pancreatitis diet:
First meal (7: 00-7: 30): boiled beef, oatmeal in milk, tea.
Second meal (9: 00-9: 30) omelet, baked apple, rosehip decoction.
The third meal (12: 00-13: 00): vegetable soup, beef soufflé, pasta, sweet berry jelly, compote.
Meal 4 (16: 00-16: 30): cottage cheese and tea.
Meal 5 (20: 00-20: 30): fish soufflé, tea.
What should I exclude?
As you can see, in the pancreatic pancreatitis diet, all dishes are made from lean meat and fish - and then only in a cooked version. Fried food is prohibited. You can eat dairy products with a minimum percentage of fat. It is advisable to drink only natural juices and compotes and teas from liquids.
Should be deleted completely:
- All types of alcohol, sweet (grape juice) and carbonated drinks, cocoa, coffee
- Animal products: offal, including the first category, pork and lard, fatty fish, all smoked meat, spicy, fried, instant products based on extraction substances.
- Vegetable products: legumes, mushrooms, spinach, sorrel, onions, bakery products based on puff pastry.
- Desserts: chocolate, fatty creams.
- Figs, grapes, bananas, dates.
- Confectionery, chocolate, ice cream, marmalade.
- Lard, cooking oil. Hard boiled eggs, whole egg dishes, fried eggs
Frequently Asked Questions
- Is cinnamon allowed? Cinnamon is a spice that can be purchased at a specialty store or supplied by distributors. What is presented in packaged form in hypermarkets is a cheap option called cassia. This "analog" is associated with myths about its healing effect in type 2 diabetes. This is not related to the work of the gland, but to the response of insulin receptors in the tissues. There is no official confirmation of this. As for real cinnamon, it improves the production of digestive juices, which is undesirable in case of an exacerbation of the disease.
- Is offal allowed? Heart, stomach and liver are not a contraindication for pancreatitis if they are properly prepared. Such foods can be eaten cooked or stewed. It is not recommended to eat them fried.
- Is processed cheese, bread, chocolate, coffee allowed? Processed cheese should be as simple as possible, ie. without spices and additives. Bread can be included in the menu. Chocolate is allowed in small amounts. Coffee is not recommended at any time of the disease. Alternatively, you can drink coffee with milk and in small amounts.
- Is rice, olive oil allowed? Rice is allowed. You can add olive oil to salads and other dishes.
- Is brine allowed? At the remission stage, a small amount of brine will not hurt, but you should not drink large amounts of it.
- Is salt fat allowed? The fat is hard on the liver and gallbladder. When used, the pancreas suffers again. Outside the exacerbation phase, lard is allowed, but in small amounts (up to two slices a day, up to twice a week).