Every third person suffers from inflammation of the pancreas, but not everyone is aware of the need for a diet for pancreatitis.
Before we talk about diet, it is important to understand what pancreatitis is, why it occurs, and how it manifests.
What is pancreatitis?
Before beginning the investigation of this disease, it is necessary to learn more about the organ in which the lesion occurs. The pancreas is a hormonal organ with a mixed function (exocrine + endocrine).
Endocrine function is expressed in the production of its own hormones (glucagon and insulin), the activity of which is aimed at regulating blood sugar levels.
Exocrine function consists in the production of pancreatic secretions (pancreatic juice), which improves digestion. The organ itself is located behind the abdomen in the left hypochondrium.
Pancreatitis is an inflammatory process in the pancreas associated with further damage to its structure.
Causes of pancreatitis:
- Alcohol abuse.
- Inaccuracy in diet, wrong diet.
- Diseases associated with damage to the bile system in the liver (this includes the gallbladder with the bile ducts extending therefrom). Such diseases include: cholelithiasis, cholangitis, tumors of the large duodenal papilla, tumors of the liver ports).
- Use of certain drugs that have a toxic effect on the pancreas (antibacterial drugs, cancer drugs).
Symptoms of acute and chronic pancreatitis
A distinction is made between chronic and acute pancreatitis. Each of these forms has a kind of clinical treatment and requires the choice of individual therapy.
Acute pancreatitis is characterized by:
- Sharp pain in the upper part of the body. The pain can be associated with the food eaten and also occurs alone;
- Increase in body temperature to fever figures (38, 1-39, 0 degrees Celsius);
- Vomiting of food eaten, sometimes bile (when the onset of the disease depends on damage to the bile system in the liver)
- Nausea resulting in vomiting
- Diarrhea (loose stools)
- Bending of undigested food eaten;
- High blood glucose levels
- On palpation (feeling) of the abdomen - the anterior abdominal wall is tense, painful at specialized points, typical of the examination of pancreatitis and gallbladder diseases.
Important!If these symptoms occur, see a doctor immediately for further instrumental examination!
The chronic form of pancreatitis is characterized by:
- Pain in the epigastric (abdominal) area. Weight in the left hypochondrium (in the left side). Sharp pain in the belt occurs more often with exacerbation of the chronic form of pancreatitis and occurs 40-50 minutes after eating;
- Dyspeptic disorders (associated with damage to the digestive system). These include: vomiting, after eating, constipation, alternating with diarrhea (complaints of white spots in the stool are possible - these are undigested fat particles and breakdown products;
- Dizziness occurs due to irritation of the nervous system by non-neutralized glucose molecules;
- Flatulence (gas in the stomach)
- Noticeable weight loss.
Complications of pancreatitis
Complications of pancreatitis due to incorrect treatment or implementation:
- Transition from acute to chronic;
- Hepatitis (cholecystitis)
- If a secondary infection enters the inflamed organ, abscess (limited purulent inflammation) and phlegmon (diffuse purulent inflammation) may occur;
- Diabetes mellitus - occurs when the smallest structures in the pancreas (islands of Langerhans) are affected;
- Peritonitis (transition of the inflammatory process from the pancreas to the abdominal cavity);
- Bleeding - occurs when the organ capsule breaks (extremely rare).
The five basic principles for the treatment of pancreatitis
To avoid complications, it is necessary to consult a doctor immediately and impeccably follow his recommendations.
Therapy for acute pancreatitis in the pancreas involves the following principles:
- Detoxification therapy (getting rid of the body in case of poisoning)
- Neutralization of excess free glucose in the body;
- Removal of inflammation of the pancreas
- Complication Prevention
- Symptom relief.
When a patient with an acute form of pancreatitis is admitted to the hospital, first of all, all therapeutic measures are aimed at removing the body's poisoning (poisoning).
- The patient should be provided with droppers with 5% glucose solution together with 0. 9% sodium chloride solution in a volume of 1000-1200 ml;
- A "starving" diet is prescribed (only abundant drinking is allowed to rid the body of excess toxins and free glucose);
- Diuretics should be prescribed to reduce the circulating blood supply and remove toxins from the body.
- Protease inhibitors that reduce the increased exocrine activity of the pancreas.
After removal of the russ syndrome, additional medical measures are taken to combat this disease. For any form of pancreatitis, diet is always recommended.
Interesting!In the form of acute pancreatitis and in exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis, three main components are prescribed primarily: colds, hunger and rest.
Cold - an ice pack, wrapped in a non-synthetic substance, should be applied to the left hypochondrium and held for 40 minutes, then rest for 20 minutes. This procedure reduces the blood supply, which causes the development of inflammation.
Diet for pancreatitis
Diet is a normalized amount of food that is used for therapeutic purposes and necessary to rebuild the overall daily energy balance.
Diet in pancreatic pancreatitis and its approximate content are different, both in acute and chronic forms.
Sult. Nutrition for pancreatitis should be fractional. For the first two days, do not eat completely (to relieve your own digestive system and reduce the inflammatory process in the pancreas).
Patients during this period are advised to use decoctions of chamomile, compotes of dried fruits, jellies, peppermint, rose hips, alkaline mineral water, special solutions.
From day 3, nutritional therapy for pancreatitis is based on a mild diet.
Important!It is forbidden to eat food that is too hot, too cold food, spicy, spicy, sour, smoked, sweet, fried food.
Eat food in small portions 7-8 times a day. All products must be treated well, grated in a blender or grated. It is recommended to consume up to 2-2, 5 liters of liquid, it can be freshly squeezed juice, decoction of rose hips, chamomile, fruit drinks, jellies, compotes, alkaline drinks.
Nutrition for pancreatitis includes certain foods in strictly established doses: wheat flour no more than 50 g per day (rye protection, premium bread, fresh bread is prohibited), lean meat (beef, chicken breast, turkey), fish (cod, pike, pike, salmon), eggs (1 pc. a day. quail eggs are very rich in nutrients needed to rebuild the daily ration).
Low-fat dairy products (milk, cottage cheese, sour cream, cream, fermented baked milk), the use of biokefirs is strictly prohibited as they contain live bacteria that can cause increased fermentation in the intestines of patients with pancreatitis and fresh milk), vegetablescan be consumed all (in steam cooked), cereals (rice, oatmeal, groats, buckwheat, millet groats), fruit (only green apples are allowed - 1 apple a day weighing no more than 300 g).
Tip!On average, the amount of calories received from food per day should not exceed 700 - 750 kcal. Such a diet for pancreatitis of the pancreas lasts 3 days. From the 5th day of exacerbation of pancreatitis, the diet should be with the amount of kilocalories consumed per day up to 1000.
For this it is necessary to increase the amount of protein consumed up to 10-15 g per day (products containing protein: cottage cheese, sour cream, eggs, chicken breast), simple carbohydrates up to 200 g (cereals, honey, sugar, potatoes).
An example of a daily menu for a patient with acute pancreatitis, starting from day 5:
- Breakfast.Millet porridge (on water), wheat biscuits 15 g, sweet tea.
- Second breakfast.Boiled beets 45 g, grated, chicken breast 50 g, lemon balm broth
- Breakfast.Vegetable soup 150 g, wheat biscuits 15 g, dried fruit compote
- Afternoon meal.Mashed potatoes 50 g, boiled fish 30 g, tea without sugar
- Dinner.Low fat cottage cheese casserole 60 g, rosehip broth
- Other supper.Skimmed milk with honey.
This diet should be followed for approx. 7-10 days. From day 10, the number of kilocalories increases to 2000-2500 kcal. Foods need to rebuild the body's energy balances and not have a negative effect on the digestive processes.
Nutrition for chronic pancreatitis
A strict diet is recommended for chronic pancreatitis. Meals should be fractional, small portions throughout the day.
Food must be eaten at a specific time at strictly specified intervals between meals (for example, 7: 00, 11: 00, 14: 00, 16: 00, 19: 30). Most often with chronic pancreatitis, diet number 5 should be prescribed. This is a mild diet prescribed for therapeutic purposes in diseases of the pancreas, gallbladder, bile ducts, liver.
The following foods are recommended to maintain energy balance and calorie intake for good body function.
Approximate Food Ration for Therapeutic Diet No. 5
Protein mad.This is a very high energy food, when it breaks down a lot of energy is released. Assign proteins of animal and vegetable origin. Products containing animal protein include: meat (lean beef pulp, lamb, pork, chicken breast, turkey meat), fish (cod, lean salmon, pike perch, red fish, seafood - shrimp, squid), dairy products (low-fat cottage cheese, sour cream, milk, cream, fermented baked milk, cheese, whey, yogurt.
Important!It is not recommended to eat foods that contain live bifidobacteria to avoid decay and fermentation in the intestines). The amount of animal protein should not exceed 80 g perDay.
Products containing plant proteins include: cereals (buckwheat, wheat, pearl barley, lentils, nuts (walnuts, almonds, peanuts, sunflower seeds). The amount of vegetable protein should not exceed 100 g per day.
It is not recommended to eat legumes as they cause fermentation in the body and so poorly digested food, which contributes to bloating, reproduction of pathogenic microflora in the lumen of the intestine.
Foods that contain fat.Fats must be of animal origin.
Tip!The amount of fatty foods should not exceed 70 g perday. This product is only recommended to be added to finished products immediately before eating (porridge, mashed potatoes).
Carbohydrate foods.Carbohydrates should be simple in structure and easily digestible. These products include: sugar, protections from 1st class wheat flour, wheat, semolina, potatoes, honey, apples, oranges, tangerines, pears, carrots, peppers, tomatoes, cucumbers, berries. The daily intake of easily digestible carbohydrates should not exceed 350 g.
For chronic pancreatitis, monthly fasting days are recommended. Lent - held 2-3 times a month and is characterized by a complete rejection of food; the use of only alkaline drinks (mineral water), broth of wild rose, chamomile, lemon balm. This treatment method facilitates the work of the pancreas, improves the peristalsis (the process of moving the lump of food along the digestive tract) and reduces the acidity of the gastric juice.
Recommended meals for patients with chronic diabetes:
- soupsit is recommended to use vegetables with added potatoes, carrots, beets, cabbage, fruit, low-fat meat broth (chicken, beef, turkey, fish). Broth should not be rich without the addition of vegetable oil and animal fat;
- vegetable purees(from potatoes, beets, carrots, broccoli) - vegetables must be thoroughly treated thermally without the addition of milk and butter;
- main courses(boiled or steamed chicken breast, turkey meat, fish, beef) with a minimum amount of salt;
- pasta made from coarse flour is allowed,protection from first-class wheat flour;
- cereals(buckwheat, barley, pearl barley, millet, oatmeal, oatmeal). Porridge should only be boiled in water with a minimal amount of salt and sugar. It is strictly forbidden to add butter to the porridge;
- decoctionrose hips, chamomile, lemon balm, alkaline mineral water, dried fruit compote, green tea, tea with milk, fresh juice (apple, carrot, beetroot), skim milk;
- protection from wheat flour of Class 1(it is not recommended to use fresh bread and protection from the highest quality flour, rye, cornmeal)
Interesting!The total daily caloric intake for pancreatitis should be 2000-2670 kcal.
Products strictly forbidden for ingestion, both in acute and chronic pancreatitis:
- Alcoholic beverages;
- Coffee, strong tea;
- Fresh wheat and rye bread;
- Fat meat broth (from the fat mass of beef, pork, lamb);
- Animal fat (pork and lamb fat)
- Bananas, grapes, figs;
- Subcultures (intestines of animals and birds - brains, liver, kidneys)
- Semolina and rice groats;
- Fried and smoked fish, fried flour products;
- Obesity products, fresh milk;
- Chocolate, candy.
For any disease, you should definitely follow a diet as it has a beneficial effect on the course of treatment and prevents the development of complications!